Tuesday, December 22, 2015

Change y to i and add -ed

Day 1                               

Objective: Given verbs ending in y, add the inflectional endings –es and –ed by changing the y to i and adding the ending.

          When y comes at the beginning of a word it is a consonant and makes the sound /y/ as in the words yes, yet, yellow, yarn and yak. Y can also be a vowel when it is at or near the end of a word. In the one syllable word cry, the y is the only vowel, and it borrows the long ī sound. (Write cry on the board.) In the two syllable word hurry, the y is the vowel in the second syllable. (Write hurry.)The y borrows the short ĕ sound in hurry.”

New Skill:
          Hurry and cry both have the time meaning of now. Right now I hurry. Right now I cry. If the action is already done in the past, what ending should be added to these words? -ed Let’s try that. (Add -ed to the end of cry without changing the y.) This looks really strange to me! Y is a vowel in this word and it is followed by another vowel e. I don’t know of any vowel team with the spelling –ye. What sound does the y have at the end of cry? /ī/ Let’s try something. Let’s change the y to i before we add –ed. (Rewrite the word cried correctly.) I think that looks better. There is an ie vowel team in our language.”(Erase the incorrect spelling of cried.)
          “Let’s try adding –ed to hurry to make it mean in the past. This time we will change the y to i before adding the –ed. (Write hurried.) The –ie in cried used the long ī sound. The –ie in hurried uses the long ē sound. That looks good to me.  Our rule for adding –ed to the end of a word that ends with y is: Change the y to I and add –ed. (Use the sign for y, a closed fist with the thumb and little finger sticking out, and then change to the sign for i, a closed fist with just the little finger sticking out, as you repeat the rule.) Do that sign with me again as we say the rule together. Change the y to i and add –ed. Let’s do it again. Change the y to i and add –ed. What changes to i? y What does y change to? i Say the rule one more time with the hand sign. Change the y to i and add –ed.”
          “How could I make the word fry mean that it was done yesterday? (Write fry.) Add –ed What do I need to do before adding –ed to fry? Change the y to i then add –ed. (Write the word fried below fry.) Which of the 3 sounds does –ed use in all these words we have just worked with? /d/ That’s right. –ed uses the voiced /d/ sound because the vowel sound at the end of the word uses the voice. Hear it? cried, hurried, and fried all end with –ed using the /d/ sound.”

Phonemic Awareness:
          I’m going to say some words. I want you to tell me if the last sound in the word is /ī/ or /ē/. For example, if the word is fly, you would say /ī/. If the word is study, you would say /ē.   Pronounce these words to have the students tell you what
Sound they hear at the end of each word.

spy              try              copy            dry              marry          carry
fly               scurry          empty          worry          rely             deny  

          For the first word in each pair, use two colors of markers to write the words one spelling at a time on the board. After each spelling say, ”sound” as the class makes the sound for that spelling. When all the spellings are on the board for that word go back and have the class chorally sounds out the words again. Say, “blend” and as you use your finger to underline the word, the class blends the words as a group. Do the same for the second word in each pair except the –ed is written together before it is sounded.
                   try     tried            dry    dried           spy     spied
                   carry carried        study  studied         copy   copied
                   reply  replied         fry     fried            empty emptied

          After the words are decoded, briefly discuss the meanings of the words that may be unfamiliar to the students. Reread the lines of words with the class. Then give clues and have the students tell their buddy which word is the answer. Call on one set of buddies to give and spell the answer. Circle or check the words on the board as they are given as answers. Clues could be:

  1. Last night I ______ the dishes for Mom.                         dried
  2. I will _____ for the test now.                                           study
  3. Yesterday he ______ his backpack home.                         carried
  4. I need to _____ my homework assignment.                       copy
  5. Grandma _____ to the letter I wrote her last week.        replied
  6. We all love to eat ______ chicken.                                   fried
  7. My sister likes to play I _____.                                        spy
  8. I _____ the dishwasher for my mom after dinner.           emptied

The last word (tried) is read by all students and they each use the word in a sentence telling their partner.

Reading Decodable Text:
          Use Transparency 23 in the second grade Harcourt materials . Read the words in the box together. Have the students count how many words they can find in the passage that have the y changed to i before adding -ed. Read the passage to the students, have the class read it chorally, and then have buddy A read to buddy B. Then B will read to A.

Day 2

          “What time frame is indicated when we add –ed to a word: future, past, or present? Past When a verb ends in the vowel y, what do we have to do before we can add –ed? Change the y to i, then add –ed. (Be sure to use the hand sign.) In a one syllable word with y being the only vowel, what sound does the y use? /ī/ In a two syllable word with a y at the end, what sound does the y use? /ē/ Say our rule for adding –ed after a word ending in y again. Change the y to I and add –ed.

          **Due to the limited number of suitable words to work with, regularly added –ed words will be reviewed along with the words where y is changed to i.
          Write the following words on the board as the students sound and blend the into words ( See Day 1. Use the buddy strategy for more student engagement.)

          loaded                   cleaned                  denied                   applied
          worked                  married                 scratched               hurried

          After the words have all been sounded and blended, discuss the meanings of words that may not be familiar to the students. Use these clues or make up your own.
  1. He _____ breaking the window.                              denied
  2. They were ______ over 35 years ago.                    married
  3. Jim _____ for that new job last week.                   applied
  4. The dog _____ his head with his hind foot.            scratched
  5. Mom _____ the house all day today.                       cleaned
  6. Jake _____ from dawn to dusk on the farm.          worked
  7. We ______ home after school.                               hurried

The last word (loaded) is read by all students silently. They each use the word in a sentence telling their partner.

Reading Decodable Text:
          Have the student Buddies practice reading the phrases on Handout#2. (You will have to copy at least one sheet for each pair of students.)

Day 3


          What is the consonant sound of y? /y/
          What are the 2 sounds y can have when it is a vowel? /ī/ and /ē/
          Which sound does y use at the end of a one syllable word? /ī/
          Which sound does y use at the end of a two syllable word? /ē/
          What rule do we use when we need to add –ed to a word that ends with y?
                   Change the y to i and add –ed.

Word Building:
          Using a pocket chart and letter cards or markers on the board, work through the word chains:
          try                        marry
          tried                     married
          cried                     carried
          cry                        carry
          dry                        curry
          dried                     hurry
          fried                     hurried
          fry                        scurried
          spy                        scurry

          Use the dictation procedure.
          /ī/ y            /ī/ i_e         /ē/ y        /ē/ ea       /ē/ e_e
          pry              pried           tried
          reply           replied         dried
          magnify        magnified    
          Henry tried to pry open the window.

Reading Decodable Text:
          Have the student Buddies practice reading the phrases on handout #2 or sentences and words on the transparency. (You will have to copy at least one sheet for each pair of students or have the text sheets as transparencies on the overhead.)

Day 4
          What is the consonant sound of y? /y/
          What are the 2 sounds y can have when it is a vowel? /ī/ and /ē/
          Which sound does y use at the end of a one syllable word? /ī/
          Which sound does y use at the end of a two syllable word? /ē/
          What rule do we use when we need to add –ed to a word that ends with y?
                   Change the y to i and add –ed.
PA: (oral)   Do the Phonemic Warm Up, p. 123E in 2nd grade manual.
“Chunking” Words:
          Write these words on the board one at a time. Circle syllables and have the students read the syllable. Once all syllables are circled, blend the syllables into words. (Always discuss word meanings when deemed necessary.)

identified              occupied                satisfied                classified    
beautified              justified                replied                  simplified

Reading Decodable Text:
          Provide students with copies of sentences (text sheet #3.) Have them locate and circle words with –ed added to the root word. Then practice reading the sentences with the buddy strategy.

Day 5
          Review quickly rule and hand sign that has been studied this week. Using about four word cards with –ed words (studied, copied, fried, replied), have Buddy A read the first word and tell a sentence using the word to Buddy B. Call on one Buddy A to share their sentence. Then for the next card, Buddy B reads and tells a sentence using the word to Buddy A. Continue until the other word cards have been used.
          Use the dictation procedure:

          /t/ -ed        /d/ -ed        /ed/ ed     /ī/ y     /ē/ y
          fry              fried            spied
          empty          emptied        carried
          notify          notified
          The cook emptied the plate of fried fish.

Reading Decodable Text: Reread sentences and phrases on handouts #1 and #2 or the transparency using the buddy strategy.
Handout #1
Fluency Phrases

1.     scurried away
2.   hurried home
3.   copied the list
4.   studied math facts
5.   tried to do it
6.   cried all night
7.   dried the dishes
8.    fried the fish
9.    married in June
10.      carried her books
11.       replied quickly
12.      pried it open
13.      dried the clothes
14.      studied my notes
15.      worried all day
16.      spied on me
17.      dried her tears
18.      empied the washer
19.      applied for the job
20.    emptied the trash

Handout #2
Sentence Fluency

1.    Dad emptied the stones into the painted box.

2.  We studied for the test tried to get some rest.

3.  The little girl cried because she was so worried.

4.  “I hurried as fast as I could,” Danny replied.

5.  A tiny mouse scurried across the floor in a hurry.

6.  My friend carried the basket of clothes for me.

7.  Ashley spied just the beads she was looking for.

8.  Mom fried bacon in the skillet for breakfast.

9.  The class tried to remember the spelling rule.

10. The fireman pried open the door to rescue the driver of the truck.

11.       No one tried to relpy to his greeting.

12.      My dad married my mom fifteen years ago.

13.      We fried the shrimp and then washed and dried the dishes.

14.      Mike carried his books to his room and studied a long time last night.

Thursday, December 17, 2015

F becomes V

Words where f changes to v

Morphology note: from Old English (Anglo-Saxon) words.  The f and v sounds are formed in the mouth exactly the same. Air is pushed between the upper teeth and the lower lip.The difference in the sounds is that /f/ is unvoiced and /v/ is voiced. In order to easily pronounce the words with s added , the /f/ is changed to /v/. The added s is using the sound /z/.
   You might also wonder why an e is added before the s. No words in English end with v. It is always followed by an e. (love, live, involve, etc.)

Word list:
                   wife                      half                       grief
                   knife                     strife                     thief
                   leaf                       scarf                     relief
                   loaf                       elf                         belief
                   life                        calf                       hoof
                   wolf                      shelf                    
          life of a wife                   lives of the wives
          loaf of bread                  loaves of bread
          life of ease                     lives of ease
          a young calf                   the young calves
          cut it in half                    cut them in halves
          a withered leaf               the withered leaves
          a single wolf                   a pack of wolves
          a sharp knife                  the sharpened knives
          a colorful scarf               many colorful scarves
          the tiny elf                      three tiny elves
          a cracked hoof               the cracked hooves
          quick relief                     relieves the pain
          one sneaky thief            gang of thieves
          gives me grief                that grieves me
          anger and strife             strives to be free
          on the shelf                   the metal shelves

1.     His wife cuts the loaf of bread with a knife.
2.     The wives keep the knives sharp.
3.     Place the loaves of bread on the lower shelves.
4.     The spring calves are relieved have clover to eat.
5.     The wolves pose a danger to the young calf.
6.     Brown withered leaves crunched beneath their hooves.
7.     The wolves bit the calves' hooves.
8.     The two thieves met in secret to half their loot.
9.     She laughed at his story disbelieving its truth.
10.  The lives of our forefathers were full of strife and grief.  
11.  We believe half of the elves are thieves!
12. His wife had many pretty scarves on her shelf.