Monday, March 7, 2016

Sounds of the suffix -ed

Sounds of –ed: /d/, /t/, /ĭd/ or /ĕd/

Phonemic Awareness: 

Listen to these words. What is the last sound in each word? 
loved       played       skipped     hummed       hopped       jumped      rubbed    walked
/d/                 /d/            /t/               /d/                 /t/               /t/               /d/            /t/

You heard /t/ or /d/ at the end of these words. All of these words mean that the action has happened in the past.  The suffix -ed has been added to the action word (or verb) to show that the action has been completed. We are going to study why the -ed changes sounds in different words. 

Some sounds are voiced such as /b/, /d/, /g/, /j/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /v/, /w/, /y/, /z/, /th/, and all of the vowel sounds. Other sounds are only produced with air, using the lips, tongue, and/or the teeth. These are the unvoiced sounds: /k/, /f/, /h/, /p/, /s/, /t/, /ks/ (x), /sh/, /ch/, and /th/ (there are  voiced and  unvoiced /th/ sounds as in those and with). The sound of -ed depends on the final sound of the word that the -ed is added to.

When a word ends with a voiced sound and an -ed is added, the -ed is pronounced /d/.

The word love ends with the voiced /v/ sound. The voice is “turned on” so the sound of -ed will also be voiced. That sound is /d/. The word is pronounced /l/ /ộ/ /v/ /d/. Because the voice is already turned on, it is easiest to leave it on when pronouncing the –ed.

When a word ends with an unvoiced sound and an -ed is added, the -ed is pronounced /t/.

The word skip ends with the unvoiced /p/ sound. Because the voice is “turned off”, it is easiest to pronounce the –ed with it’s unvoiced sound /t/. The word will be pronounced /s/ /k/ /ĭ/ /p/ /t/.

Let’s sort some words according to whether the –ed will say /t/ or /d/.
talk /t/              fix /t/                hammer /d/                skim /d/              cook /t/        camp /t/
listen /d/         mop /t/              stir /d/                        clean /d/            shop /t/        name /d/

What happens when the word ends with /t/ or /d/? It would be hard to say land/d/ or pat /t/! When the base word already ends in /t/ or /d/ the –ed will be pronounced either  /ĭd/ or /ĕd/ depending on what region of the country you are from. The word land would be /l/ /ă/ /n/ /d/ /ĕ/ /d/ and the word pat would be /p/ /ă/ /t/ /ĕ/ /d/. Because another vowel sound is required, the –ed actually adds another syllable to the word. Pat is one syllable, patted is two syllables.
Lets add –ed to the following words: hand,  heat, strand, lift, knock, blind, fund, head, sand, point
All of the words above have another syllable added when the –ed is added.

Mixed Practice:
Add –ed to the following words. Sort the words into groups according to the sound of –ed.

ask        name       add        bang      knock     buzz     rush       blink
close     open        smile      sand      melt        box      long       shift

            /t/                                 /d/                                /-id/ or /-ed/
            asked                         named                        added
            knocked                     banged                      sanded
            rushed                       buzzed                       melted
            blinked                       closed                        shifted
            boxed                         opened                     

Text Practice - Phrases

1.    boxed lunch
2.    named his dog
3.    melted the cheese
4.    shifted the load
5.    smiled and waved at me
6.    blinked her eyes
7.    closed the door
8.    added the numbers
9.    sanded the wood
10. longed for home
11. banged the window
12. rushed to help
13. opened his mouth
14. asked for more
15. knocked it over
16. buzzed the buzzer

Text Practice – Sentences

1.    She bumped her head on the shelf and yelled very loudly.
2.    Dad sanded and painted the chest for my mom.
3.    The striped cat dozed in the sun and then stretched her legs.
4.    We lined up and headed to the lunchroom for a snack.
5.    My teacher smiled and waved at me when she noticed me at the store.
6.    The angry man banged the table and demanded more food.
7.    Greg longed for home when he had camped by the river for a week.
8.    The clerk added the numbers and handed me my bill.
9.    The melted cheese and the cooked mushrooms made the sandwich tasty.
10. As the driver rounded the curve his load shifted.
11. Mike named his spotted dog Rick the Ragged.
12. I heard the flies as they buzzed around the spoiled meat.
13. Coach dropped his clipboard and rushed to help the injured player.
14. We loaded our boxed lunches and filled canteens into out backpacks.
15. Samuel closed the door and opened the window.
16. Jenny wandered across the field and picked some wilted flowers.

Tuesday, December 22, 2015

Change y to i and add -ed

Day 1                               

Objective: Given verbs ending in y, add the inflectional endings –es and –ed by changing the y to i and adding the ending.

          When y comes at the beginning of a word it is a consonant and makes the sound /y/ as in the words yes, yet, yellow, yarn and yak. Y can also be a vowel when it is at or near the end of a word. In the one syllable word cry, the y is the only vowel, and it borrows the long ī sound. (Write cry on the board.) In the two syllable word hurry, the y is the vowel in the second syllable. (Write hurry.)The y borrows the short ĕ sound in hurry.”

New Skill:
          Hurry and cry both have the time meaning of now. Right now I hurry. Right now I cry. If the action is already done in the past, what ending should be added to these words? -ed Let’s try that. (Add -ed to the end of cry without changing the y.) This looks really strange to me! Y is a vowel in this word and it is followed by another vowel e. I don’t know of any vowel team with the spelling –ye. What sound does the y have at the end of cry? /ī/ Let’s try something. Let’s change the y to i before we add –ed. (Rewrite the word cried correctly.) I think that looks better. There is an ie vowel team in our language.”(Erase the incorrect spelling of cried.)
          “Let’s try adding –ed to hurry to make it mean in the past. This time we will change the y to i before adding the –ed. (Write hurried.) The –ie in cried used the long ī sound. The –ie in hurried uses the long ē sound. That looks good to me.  Our rule for adding –ed to the end of a word that ends with y is: Change the y to I and add –ed. (Use the sign for y, a closed fist with the thumb and little finger sticking out, and then change to the sign for i, a closed fist with just the little finger sticking out, as you repeat the rule.) Do that sign with me again as we say the rule together. Change the y to i and add –ed. Let’s do it again. Change the y to i and add –ed. What changes to i? y What does y change to? i Say the rule one more time with the hand sign. Change the y to i and add –ed.”
          “How could I make the word fry mean that it was done yesterday? (Write fry.) Add –ed What do I need to do before adding –ed to fry? Change the y to i then add –ed. (Write the word fried below fry.) Which of the 3 sounds does –ed use in all these words we have just worked with? /d/ That’s right. –ed uses the voiced /d/ sound because the vowel sound at the end of the word uses the voice. Hear it? cried, hurried, and fried all end with –ed using the /d/ sound.”

Phonemic Awareness:
          I’m going to say some words. I want you to tell me if the last sound in the word is /ī/ or /ē/. For example, if the word is fly, you would say /ī/. If the word is study, you would say /ē.   Pronounce these words to have the students tell you what
Sound they hear at the end of each word.

spy              try              copy            dry              marry          carry
fly               scurry          empty          worry          rely             deny  

          For the first word in each pair, use two colors of markers to write the words one spelling at a time on the board. After each spelling say, ”sound” as the class makes the sound for that spelling. When all the spellings are on the board for that word go back and have the class chorally sounds out the words again. Say, “blend” and as you use your finger to underline the word, the class blends the words as a group. Do the same for the second word in each pair except the –ed is written together before it is sounded.
                   try     tried            dry    dried           spy     spied
                   carry carried        study  studied         copy   copied
                   reply  replied         fry     fried            empty emptied

          After the words are decoded, briefly discuss the meanings of the words that may be unfamiliar to the students. Reread the lines of words with the class. Then give clues and have the students tell their buddy which word is the answer. Call on one set of buddies to give and spell the answer. Circle or check the words on the board as they are given as answers. Clues could be:

  1. Last night I ______ the dishes for Mom.                         dried
  2. I will _____ for the test now.                                           study
  3. Yesterday he ______ his backpack home.                         carried
  4. I need to _____ my homework assignment.                       copy
  5. Grandma _____ to the letter I wrote her last week.        replied
  6. We all love to eat ______ chicken.                                   fried
  7. My sister likes to play I _____.                                        spy
  8. I _____ the dishwasher for my mom after dinner.           emptied

The last word (tried) is read by all students and they each use the word in a sentence telling their partner.

Reading Decodable Text:
          Use Transparency 23 in the second grade Harcourt materials . Read the words in the box together. Have the students count how many words they can find in the passage that have the y changed to i before adding -ed. Read the passage to the students, have the class read it chorally, and then have buddy A read to buddy B. Then B will read to A.

Day 2

          “What time frame is indicated when we add –ed to a word: future, past, or present? Past When a verb ends in the vowel y, what do we have to do before we can add –ed? Change the y to i, then add –ed. (Be sure to use the hand sign.) In a one syllable word with y being the only vowel, what sound does the y use? /ī/ In a two syllable word with a y at the end, what sound does the y use? /ē/ Say our rule for adding –ed after a word ending in y again. Change the y to I and add –ed.

          **Due to the limited number of suitable words to work with, regularly added –ed words will be reviewed along with the words where y is changed to i.
          Write the following words on the board as the students sound and blend the into words ( See Day 1. Use the buddy strategy for more student engagement.)

          loaded                   cleaned                  denied                   applied
          worked                  married                 scratched               hurried

          After the words have all been sounded and blended, discuss the meanings of words that may not be familiar to the students. Use these clues or make up your own.
  1. He _____ breaking the window.                              denied
  2. They were ______ over 35 years ago.                    married
  3. Jim _____ for that new job last week.                   applied
  4. The dog _____ his head with his hind foot.            scratched
  5. Mom _____ the house all day today.                       cleaned
  6. Jake _____ from dawn to dusk on the farm.          worked
  7. We ______ home after school.                               hurried

The last word (loaded) is read by all students silently. They each use the word in a sentence telling their partner.

Reading Decodable Text:
          Have the student Buddies practice reading the phrases on Handout#2. (You will have to copy at least one sheet for each pair of students.)

Day 3


          What is the consonant sound of y? /y/
          What are the 2 sounds y can have when it is a vowel? /ī/ and /ē/
          Which sound does y use at the end of a one syllable word? /ī/
          Which sound does y use at the end of a two syllable word? /ē/
          What rule do we use when we need to add –ed to a word that ends with y?
                   Change the y to i and add –ed.

Word Building:
          Using a pocket chart and letter cards or markers on the board, work through the word chains:
          try                        marry
          tried                     married
          cried                     carried
          cry                        carry
          dry                        curry
          dried                     hurry
          fried                     hurried
          fry                        scurried
          spy                        scurry

          Use the dictation procedure.
          /ī/ y            /ī/ i_e         /ē/ y        /ē/ ea       /ē/ e_e
          pry              pried           tried
          reply           replied         dried
          magnify        magnified    
          Henry tried to pry open the window.

Reading Decodable Text:
          Have the student Buddies practice reading the phrases on handout #2 or sentences and words on the transparency. (You will have to copy at least one sheet for each pair of students or have the text sheets as transparencies on the overhead.)

Day 4
          What is the consonant sound of y? /y/
          What are the 2 sounds y can have when it is a vowel? /ī/ and /ē/
          Which sound does y use at the end of a one syllable word? /ī/
          Which sound does y use at the end of a two syllable word? /ē/
          What rule do we use when we need to add –ed to a word that ends with y?
                   Change the y to i and add –ed.
PA: (oral)   Do the Phonemic Warm Up, p. 123E in 2nd grade manual.
“Chunking” Words:
          Write these words on the board one at a time. Circle syllables and have the students read the syllable. Once all syllables are circled, blend the syllables into words. (Always discuss word meanings when deemed necessary.)

identified              occupied                satisfied                classified    
beautified              justified                replied                  simplified

Reading Decodable Text:
          Provide students with copies of sentences (text sheet #3.) Have them locate and circle words with –ed added to the root word. Then practice reading the sentences with the buddy strategy.

Day 5
          Review quickly rule and hand sign that has been studied this week. Using about four word cards with –ed words (studied, copied, fried, replied), have Buddy A read the first word and tell a sentence using the word to Buddy B. Call on one Buddy A to share their sentence. Then for the next card, Buddy B reads and tells a sentence using the word to Buddy A. Continue until the other word cards have been used.
          Use the dictation procedure:

          /t/ -ed        /d/ -ed        /ed/ ed     /ī/ y     /ē/ y
          fry              fried            spied
          empty          emptied        carried
          notify          notified
          The cook emptied the plate of fried fish.

Reading Decodable Text: Reread sentences and phrases on handouts #1 and #2 or the transparency using the buddy strategy.
Handout #1
Fluency Phrases

1.     scurried away
2.   hurried home
3.   copied the list
4.   studied math facts
5.   tried to do it
6.   cried all night
7.   dried the dishes
8.    fried the fish
9.    married in June
10.      carried her books
11.       replied quickly
12.      pried it open
13.      dried the clothes
14.      studied my notes
15.      worried all day
16.      spied on me
17.      dried her tears
18.      empied the washer
19.      applied for the job
20.    emptied the trash

Handout #2
Sentence Fluency

1.    Dad emptied the stones into the painted box.

2.  We studied for the test tried to get some rest.

3.  The little girl cried because she was so worried.

4.  “I hurried as fast as I could,” Danny replied.

5.  A tiny mouse scurried across the floor in a hurry.

6.  My friend carried the basket of clothes for me.

7.  Ashley spied just the beads she was looking for.

8.  Mom fried bacon in the skillet for breakfast.

9.  The class tried to remember the spelling rule.

10. The fireman pried open the door to rescue the driver of the truck.

11.       No one tried to relpy to his greeting.

12.      My dad married my mom fifteen years ago.

13.      We fried the shrimp and then washed and dried the dishes.

14.      Mike carried his books to his room and studied a long time last night.