Sounds of –ed: /d/, /t/, /ĭd/ or /ĕd/
Listen to these words. What is the last sound in each word?
loved played skipped hummed hopped jumped rubbed walked
/d/ /d/ /t/ /d/ /t/ /t/ /d/ /t/
Some sounds are voiced such as /b/, /d/, /g/, /j/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /v/, /w/, /y/, /z/, /th/, and all of the vowel sounds. Other sounds are only produced with air, using the lips, tongue, and/or the teeth. These are the unvoiced sounds: /k/, /f/, /h/, /p/, /s/, /t/, /ks/ (x), /sh/, /ch/, and /th/ (there are voiced and unvoiced /th/ sounds as in those and with). The sound of -ed depends on the final sound of the word that the -ed is added to.
When a word ends with a voiced sound and an -ed is added, the -ed is pronounced /d/.
The word love ends with the voiced /v/ sound. The voice is “turned on” so the sound of -ed will also be voiced. That sound is /d/. The word is pronounced /l/ /ộ/ /v/ /d/. Because the voice is already turned on, it is easiest to leave it on when pronouncing the –ed.
When a word ends with an unvoiced sound and an -ed is added, the -ed is pronounced /t/.
The word skip ends with the unvoiced /p/ sound. Because the voice is “turned off”, it is easiest to pronounce the –ed with it’s unvoiced sound /t/. The word will be pronounced /s/ /k/ /ĭ/ /p/ /t/.
Let’s sort some words according to whether the –ed will say /t/ or /d/.
talk /t/ fix /t/ hammer /d/ skim /d/ cook /t/ camp /t/
listen /d/ mop /t/ stir /d/ clean /d/ shop /t/ name /d/
What happens when the word ends with /t/ or /d/? It would be hard to say land/d/ or pat /t/! When the base word already ends in /t/ or /d/ the –ed will be pronounced either /ĭd/ or /ĕd/ depending on what region of the country you are from. The word land would be /l/ /ă/ /n/ /d/ /ĕ/ /d/ and the word pat would be /p/ /ă/ /t/ /ĕ/ /d/. Because another vowel sound is required, the –ed actually adds another syllable to the word. Pat is one syllable, patted is two syllables.
Lets add –ed to the following words: hand, heat, strand, lift, knock, blind, fund, head, sand, point
All of the words above have another syllable added when the –ed is added.
Add –ed to the following words. Sort the words into groups according to the sound of –ed.
ask name add bang knock buzz rush blink
close open smile sand melt box long shift
/t/ /d/ /-id/ or /-ed/
asked named added
knocked banged sanded
rushed buzzed melted
blinked closed shifted
Text Practice - Phrases
1. boxed lunch
2. named his dog
3. melted the cheese
4. shifted the load
5. smiled and waved at me
6. blinked her eyes
7. closed the door
8. added the numbers
9. sanded the wood
10. longed for home
11. banged the window
12. rushed to help
13. opened his mouth
14. asked for more
15. knocked it over
16. buzzed the buzzer
Text Practice – Sentences
1. She bumped her head on the shelf and yelled very loudly.
2. Dad sanded and painted the chest for my mom.
3. The striped cat dozed in the sun and then stretched her legs.
4. We lined up and headed to the lunchroom for a snack.
5. My teacher smiled and waved at me when she noticed me at the store.
6. The angry man banged the table and demanded more food.
7. Greg longed for home when he had camped by the river for a week.
8. The clerk added the numbers and handed me my bill.
9. The melted cheese and the cooked mushrooms made the sandwich tasty.
10. As the driver rounded the curve his load shifted.
11. Mike named his spotted dog Rick the Ragged.
12. I heard the flies as they buzzed around the spoiled meat.
13. Coach dropped his clipboard and rushed to help the injured player.
14. We loaded our boxed lunches and filled canteens into out backpacks.
15. Samuel closed the door and opened the window.
16. Jenny wandered across the field and picked some wilted flowers.